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Type I Diabetes:

Type I Diabetes is caused by an autoimmune disorder-a problem with the body's immune system. In a healthy body, specialized cells (called beta cells) in the pancreas make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that allows the body to use energy from food. In Type I Diabetes, the immune system mistakes beta cells for invaders and attacks them. This results in loss of pancreatic function and inability to produce insulin.  When enough beta cells are destroyed, symptoms of diabetes appear.

Type II Diabetes: <Click Here for more information>

Type II Diabetes affects about 24 million in the United States.  In Type II Diabetes, the beta cells still produce insulin. However, either the cells do not respond properly to the insulin or the insulin produced naturally is not enough to meet the needs of the body.  Insulin is usually still present in a person with Type II Diabetes, but it does not work as well as it should.  Measurable indications of diabetes are as follows:

  • Glucose before meal - >100 (mg/dl)
  • Glucose 2 hours after meal - > 140 (mg/dl)
  • A1c (%) > 6

Pre-Diabetes: <Click Here for more information>

Pre-Diabetes is the same as Type II Diabetes, and is identified with blood glucose levels above.

The following characteristics are common to Type II and Pre-Diabetes:

  • Usually overweight, particularly abdominal area.
  • Few to no symptoms
    • Blurred vision
    • Cuts that are slow to heal
    • Tingling or numbness in feet and hands
    • Recurring mouth, skin and bladder infections
    • Increased urination, thirst and appetite


Heart Disease and Stroke <Click Here for more information>

People with diabetes have extra reason to be mindful of heart and blood vessel disease. Diabetes carries an increased risk for heart attack, stroke, and complications related to poor circulation:

    • Irregular heartbeats
    • Dizzy spells
    • Chest pains
    • Slow healing of cuts and sores
    • Numbness or weakness in an arm or leg
    • Leg cramps
    • Swollen ankles
    • Shortness of breath

Note:      These symptoms may also be caused by some medical condition besides blood vessel damage.

  • Things you need to know
    • Smoking and blood fat level can cause blood vessels to narrow, which makes it difficult for the blood to flow throughout the body. Both can increase the chance of a heart attack.  Diabetes can also damage the blood vessels that supply blood to all parts of the body, increasing the risk of heart attack.
    • What can you do?  Test your blood every 3 to 4 months.
      • Total Cholesterol
      • LDL (bad) Cholesterol
      • HDL (good) Cholesterol
      • Triglycerides
      • EKG
      • Blood Pressure (Every Week)

Kidney Disease <Click Here for more information>

Diabetes can damage the kidneys, which not only can cause them to fail, but can also ability to filter out waste products.

  • Complications
    • Dialysis and Transplantation
  • Symptoms
    • There are none.  Kidney disease can be detected through a regular visit to your doctor and testing your blood and urine.
    • High Blood Pressure
  • Things you need to know
    • Diabetics are 19 times more likely than those without diabetes to develop problems with the kidney.
    • Chronic Kidney Disease is called Nephropathy
      • To prevent keep your blood sugar levels close to normal range.
        • Before meal                 < 100 (mg/dL)
        • 2 hours after meal        < 140 (mg/dL)

Eye Complications <Click Here for more information>

Diabetes can cause eye problems and may lead to blindness. People with diabetes do have a higher risk of blindness than people without diabetes. Early detection and treatment of eye problems can save your sight.

  • Complications
    • Diabetes retinopathy – damage to the blood vessels in the retina (back of the eye).
    • Cataract – clouding of the eye lens.
    • Glaucoma – increase in fluid pressure inside the eye that leads to optic nerve damage and loss of vision.
  • Symptoms
    • There are none.  The vision may not change until the disease becomes severe.
  • Things you need to know
    • 70% of loss of vision or blindness in the United States from diabetes retinopathy.

Diabetes, Oral Health and Hygiene <Click Here for more information>

There are more bacteria in your mouth right now than there are people on Earth. If those germs settle into your gums, you've got gum disease. "Not me?" you say.

  • Complications
    • Yeast infection (white spot on the tongue)
    • Gingivitis – first stage of gums disease, redness around the gums, swelling and pain.
    • Damaged blood vessels, thus increasing your chance of infection.
    • Plaque – yellow sticky film, which leads to tartar formation and eventual tooth and bone loss.
  • Symptoms
    • Bleeding gums – when you eat or brush teeth.
    • Pain when eating or drinking cold or hot.
    • Loose teeth, ulcers or sores.
    • Bad breath.
    • Problems with dentures fitting properly.
  • Things you need to know
    • Dental exam every six months.
    • Avoid high sugar food.
    • Stop smoking.
    • Make sure that your dentist knows about your diabetes.

Diabetic Neuropathy / Foot Complications <Click Here for more information>

The most common complications of diabetes is diabetic neuropathy. Neuropathy means damage to the nerve cells that run throughout the body, connecting the spinal cord to muscles, skin, blood vessels, and other organs.

  • Complications
    • Due to loss of feeling in your feet, you may not notice cuts and infections.
    • People with diabetes are far more likely (65%) to have a foot or leg amputated than other people. The problem? Many people with diabetes have artery disease, which reduces blood flow to the feet. Also, many people with diabetes have nerve disease, which reduces sensation. Together, these problems make it easy to get ulcers and infections that may lead to amputation. Most amputations are preventable with regular care and proper footwear.
    • Ulcers - Ulcers occur most often on the ball of the foot or on the bottom of the big toe. Ulcers on the sides of the foot are usually due to poorly fitting shoes. Remember, even though some ulcers do not hurt, every ulcer should be seen by your health care provider right away. Neglecting ulcers can result in infections, which in turn can lead to loss of a limb.
  • Symptoms
    • Tingle, burn, ache, or throb on your feet and lower legs.
    • Numbness in feet, hands and lower legs.
    • Diarrhea that will not stop.
    • Impotence in men.
    • Less able to have an orgasm or climax.
    • Abdominal pain.
    • Feet that feel cold to the touch.
    • Lack of hair on your feet.
  • Things you need to know
    • Check your feet daily for any changes, such as blisters, cuts, ulcers, redness and large calluses.
  • Foot Care
    • Avoid using anything hot (heating pads, hot water bottles or hot bath water) on your feet.
    • Trim your toenails carefully.  Injuries from cutting your toenails can lead to infection, ulcers and finally amputations.
    • Help prevent bunions and calluses by wearing well fitting shoes.
    • Always check your shoes for any rough edges, sand and any object that may cause irritation.
    • Dry your feet with a soft towel after bathing.  Wetness between your toes allow fungus to grow, which can lead to serious infection.
    • Inspect your feet with a mirror daily.  If your feet are dry and cracked use a moisturizer cream (avoid cream between your toes).

Skin Complications

Your body loses of fluids through frequent urination.  This loss of fluids (dehydration) will make your skin and body dry.  In fact, such problems are sometimes the first sign that a person has diabetes.  It can damage nerves that produce oil and can make your body sweat less.  Your skin relies on oil and sweat to keep it moist so the loss of oil and sweat can make it dry.

  • Complications
    • Dry skin cracks easily, letting germs enter.
      • Easily infected:  Infections spread faster.
      • Infections are harder to treat
      • Infections take longer to heal.
  • Symptoms
    • Extra dry skin
    • Rashes
    • Itchy skin
    • Boils
    • Pimples
  • Things you need to know
    • Itchy skin in the vaginal, groin or foot areas may indicate an infection.
    • Avoid lotions and creams that contain alcohol, additive, dyes and fragrances (perfume).
  • Skin Care
    • Use a very mild soap that will not cause irritation and remove oil from your skin.
    • Always use warm water, hot water can cause irritation.
    • Always rinse off soap cleansers completely.
    • Avoid rubbing, Dry well between all folds (toes, armpits, and breasts).
    • Drink 4 glasses (8 oz) of water (ARP required 4 glasses of water per day) to give your body more fluid.
    • Avoid lotions and creams that contain alcohol, additive dyes and fragrances (perfume).


Feeling down once in a while is normal. But some people feel a sadness that just won't go away. Life seems hopeless. Feeling this way most of the day for two weeks or more is a sign of serious depression.  That is why you choose Hope Diabetes Center as your diabetes care provider.  Because taking care of your diabetes was a 24/7 job filled with responsibility and worries, Hope Diabetes Center created a program that will make your diabetes care easy to control.  We understand that your emotional adjustment to diabetes is the key to good self-care and a long healthy life.

  • Complications
    • Stress can trigger a downward spiral on your health and high blood sugar.
    • alcohol or drug abuse
    • thyroid problems
    • side effects from some medications
  • Symptoms
    • Loss of pleasure You no longer take interest in doing things you used to enjoy.
    • Change in sleep patterns You have trouble falling asleep, you wake often during the night, or you want to sleep more than usual, including during the day.
    • Early to rise You wake up earlier than usual and cannot to get back to sleep.
    • Change in appetite You eat more or less than you used to, resulting in a quick weight gain or weight loss.
    • Trouble concentrating You can't watch a TV program or read an article because other thoughts or feelings get in the way.
    • Loss of energy You feel tired all the time.
    • Nervousness You always feel so anxious you can't sit still.
    • Guilt You feel you "never do anything right" and worry that you are a burden to others.
    • Morning sadness You feel worse in the morning than you do the rest of the day.
    • Suicidal thoughts You feel you want to die or are thinking about ways to hurt yourself.
  • Things you need to know
    • Stress of being sick may cause your blood sugar level to go higher.

Understanding Your A1c

Because your sugar level can change from hour to hour, we required you to test your blood four time per day (daily A1c).   A1c measures the amount of sugar that attaches to protein in your red blood cell   the greater the amount of sugar in your blood and the longer it remains high, the more sugar will attach to the red blood cells.

A1c Levels

Glucose Range


4.0 – 6.0 %

60 – 135 mg/dL


**6.1 – 7.0 %

136.170 mg/dL


***7.1 – 8.0 %

171- 205 mg/dL


8.1 – 9.0

206 – 240 mg/dL


9.1 – 10.0 %

241 – 275 mg/dL


10.1 – 11.0 %

276 – 310 mg/dL


11.1 – 12.0 %

311 – 345 mg/dL


12.1 – 13.0 %

346 – 380 mg/dL


13.1 – 14.0 %

381 – 415 mg/dL



** complications such as eye, heart, kidney disease, Diabetic Neuropathy / Foot Complications, Oral, Health / Hygiene and more.

complications such as eye, heart, kidney disease, Diabetic Neuropathy / Foot Complications, Oral, Health / Hygiene and more.


  • Exercise at the wrong time (before meals) can decrease blood sugar to dangerously high levels.  Be sure to consult your physician before beginning an exercise program.
  • Skipping a meal will stimulate the liver to release sugar into blood, resulting in twice as much sugar as might otherwise have been consumed.  It is important to eat three meals a day.
  • Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of disorders such as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular occlusion, peripheral artery disease, renal insufficiency, peripheral neuropathy, lower-extremity infection, ulceration, and amputation, and other disorders. Such complications frequently require admission into the hospital for evaluation and treatment.
  • Low Glucose Results – If your result is lower than 70mg/dl, it may mean Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).  This may require immediate treatment according to your health care professional’s recommendations.  Although this result could be due to a test error, it is safer to treat first, and then do another test.
  • High Glucose Results - If your test result is higher than 140mg/dl, it may mean Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).  If you are uncertain about your test result, consider re-testing.   Your doctor can work with you do decide what actions, if any, you should take if your results are higher than 140 mg/dl.


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